There are many ways to contribute to Rust for Linux. One way is to contribute to the kernel itself — the rest of this page focuses on that. But there are other ways as well:

  • In Rust:

    • Helping to stabilize unstable features the kernel requires.

    • Adding support for features we would like in the kernel: in the language, in the standard library, in the compiler, in rustdoc, in Clippy, in bindgen... Please see the various "wanted features & bugfixes" lists for each topic.

  • Contributing to the subprojects: klint and pinned-init.

  • Contributing to the Coccinelle for Rust project.

  • Contributing to the rustc_codegen_gcc project, which will be used by the kernel for GCC builds.

  • Contributing to the gccrs project, which eventually will provide a second toolchain for GCC builds.

  • Improve support for Rust in pahole.

The kernel development process

The Rust support is part of the Linux kernel, and thus contributing works the same way as for the latter. That implies, among other things:

  • A patch-based workflow is used.

  • Reviews take place in the different mailing lists of the kernel.

  • Contributions are signed under the Developer's Certificate of Origin.

To learn more about the kernel development process, please read the documentation under Documentation/process. In particular, please make sure to read submitting-patches.rst.

In addition, it may be a good idea to contribute a small cleanup or fix somewhere in the kernel (not necessarily to Rust code), in order to get accustomed to the patch-based workflow. From time to time we add "good first issues" to our GitHub issue tracker for that purpose.

Ways to contribute

There are many ways to contribute to the Rust support in the kernel:

  • Submitting changes, of course, whether it is new code or improvements to existing code. Please see the details below on this option.

  • Reviewing patches, especially if you have experience with unsafe Rust and have an eye to spot unsoundness issues or with Rust API design in general. Reviewers can get credited within commits messages via the Reviewed-by tag.

  • Testing patches. Like reviewing, running meaningful testing increases the confidence that the patch is OK. Testers can get credited within commits messages via the Tested-by tag.

  • Reporting issues you find. Reporters can get credited within commits messages via the Reported-by tag.

  • Suggesting improvements. Good ideas that end up being implemented can get credited within commit messages via the Suggested-by tag.

  • Helping others on Zulip. For instance, getting them started with the Rust support in the kernel.

The Rust subsystem

The Rust subsystem takes care of the core Rust abstractions as well as the general infrastructure for Rust in the kernel. It is a bit special in that it potentially intersects with every other subsystem in the kernel, especially in the beginning of the Rust support in the kernel.

For this reason, early on, there are a few extra notes to have in mind when contributing Rust code to the kernel.

Submitting changes to existing code

All patches containing Rust code should be sent to both the maintainers/reviewers/mailing lists of the relevant kernel subsystem they touch as well as the Rust one.

This applies even if the files that the patch modifies are all under rust/ (e.g. currently all abstractions live under rust/, but the plan is to change this in the future as Rust grows in the kernel) and the files are referenced by the MAINTAINERS entry of the relevant subsystem. Scripts like scripts/ may not provide the complete list.

The goal with this procedure is that everybody interested in Rust can follow what is going on with Rust in the entire kernel in the early stages, to avoid duplicate work, and to make it easier for everybody to coordinate.

For instance, if a patch modifies rust/kernel/, then the patch should be sent to both "TIMEKEEPING" and "RUST".

Ideally, the maintainers of the particular subsystem will take the changes through their tree, instead of going through the Rust one.

Please make sure your code is properly documented, that the code compiles warning-free under CLIPPY=1, that the code documentation tests pass and that the code is formatted.

Submitting new abstractions and modules

For new abstractions and modules, and especially for those that require new kernel subsystems/maintainers to be involved, please follow the approach outlined here.

  • Kernel maintainers and developers interested in using Rust should take the lead in developing missing abstractions/modules for the subsystems they need.

  • Part of the work may be already done or in the process of being upstreamed, thus please first check the mailing list archive as well as the PRs submitted to GitHub. It is also a good idea to ask on our Zulip chat.

  • As early as possible, please get in touch with the maintainers of the relevant subsystem in order to make them aware of the work you are doing or planning to do. That way, they can give you input and feedback on the process. Please feel free to Cc the Rust maintainers too.

  • Consider whether a Rust reference driver could be a good idea to bootstrap Rust into the subsystem.

  • When you are getting closer to patch submission, please consider sending an RFC series first, especially if it is a major contribution, or if it is a long patch series, or if you require a lot of prerequisite patches (e.g. for abstractions of other subsystems) that are not yet upstreamed.

    The RFC can be based on top of a branch placed somewhere else that contains the prerequisite patches, so that the RFC patches themselves do not cover those, and therefore is focused on the parts that the maintainers will eventually review.

    This way, you can get early design feedback before the actual patch submission later, and the discussion is focused on the given subsystem (rather than the prerequisites).

  • In general, the kernel does not allow to integrate code without users, but exceptions can potentially be made for Rust code to simplify the upstreaming process early on. That is, upstreaming some dependencies first so that it is easier to upstream expected in-tree users later on. However, note that this is not meant to be a way to justify upstreaming APIs that do not have agreed upon in-tree users. In particular, out-of-tree modules do not constitute a user in this context.

    Please contact the Rust maintainers for help, especially if you find yourself with a lot of dependencies or patches for unrelated subsystems.

Submit checklist addendum

  • Please run your patch through the scripts/ script. In particular, the --codespell option is useful to check patches for typos.

  • Please format the code by running the rustfmt target.

  • Please keep the code Clippy-clean by compiling with CLIPPY=1.

  • When submitting changes to Rust code documentation, please render them using the rustdoc target and ensure the result looks as expected.

  • When submitting changes to examples inside Rust code documentation (i.e. "doctests"), which are transformed into KUnit tests, please test them by running them.

  • When submitting changes to the Rust folder of the kernel documentation (i.e. Documentation/rust/), which are written in reStructuredText and handled by Sphinx, please render them (typically using the htmldocs target) to ensure there are no warnings and that the result looks as expected.

  • When submitting changes to #[test]s, please test them by running the rusttest target.

Key cycle dates

  • Patches can be sent anytime.

  • We aim to send early PRs to Linus, to have patches for at least a week in linux-next and to give patches at least a week of review time.

    Therefore, in general, the last version of a patch series with new features (i.e. aimed at the next merge window) should arrive before -rc5.

Submitting patches

If you are using a CLI tool like git-send-email or b4, then you may find the following commands useful for generating the options needed for submitting patches to the Rust subsystem:

awk '/^RUST$/,/^$/' MAINTAINERS | grep '^M:'    | cut -f2- | xargs -IP echo --to \'P\' \\
awk '/^RUST$/,/^$/' MAINTAINERS | grep '^[RL]:' | cut -f2- | xargs -IP echo --cc \'P\' \\

This list includes the maintainers (M:), reviewers (R:) and mailing list (L:) of the "RUST" subsystem in the MAINTAINERS file.

However, please keep in mind that this does not cover additional subsystems that you may need to submit your patches to, as explained in the other sections.